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|Titre: ||Water Quality in the Integrated Mariculture Pond Systems (IMPS) at Makoba Bay, Zanzibar, Tanzania|
|Auteur(s): ||Mmochi, A.J.|
|mot-clé ASFA: ||Mariculture|
|Date de publication: ||2003|
|Référence bibliographique: ||Western Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci., 2 (1), p. 15-23|
|Résumé: ||The Makoba integrated mariculture pond system project (IMPS) has been on-going
since 1998. Except for a period from mid 1999 to 2001, various water quality parameters,
namely temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved inorganic nutrients and dissolved oxygen
concentration and saturation, have been monitored continuously. In 2002, measurement of
sediment oxygen demand (SOD) and consumption of oxygen by sediments was initiated.
Dissolved oxygen concentration varied from the highest monthly average of 7.16 mg/l in
October 1998, to 2.2 mg/l in March 2000 (r = –0.69). Nutrient concentrations remained moreor-
less constant, except in the finfish ponds, where slight variations were recorded. The lowest
concentration of ammonium-nitrogen (3.02 mg-at N/l) was recorded in the Kiwani creek in
December 2001, and the highest (18.02 mg-at N/l), in the finfish ponds in December 1998. In
2002 the concentrations became much lower and the overall regression from 1998 to 2002 was
negative. Dissolved inorganic phosphate concentration in the finfish ponds increased from 4.36
to 7.97 mg-at P/l (r = 0.75) between August 1998 and April 1999. In 2002, however, the
concentration was low, making the overall trend also negative. pH ranged from 7.07 in Kiwani
creek to 8.54 in the outlet. There was no clear pattern in the pH trends at the individual stations.
In 1998 and 1999 there was a general decrease in pH with a corresponding increase in nutrient
concentrations and decrease in dissolved oxygen. The SOD values in the ponds and the outlet
were higher than in the creek and the reservoir, and the half life of dissolved oxygen was lowest
in the ponds compared to the rest of the sites.
The nutrient concentrations at Makoba ponds are generally acceptable for the environment
and fish farming.
Aquaculture of animals in most of Africa is still
small-scale and freshwater. Recently, however, the
Institute of Marine Sciences (IMS) of the
University of Dar es Salaam has received an
increasing number of requests for advice on
subsistence and commercial mariculture (Mmochi
& Jiddawi, 1996).
In 1986 some attempts at prawn farming were
made in Bagamoyo in Tanzania but were stopped
due to land controversies (Bryceson, 2002). What
would have become the biggest prawn farm in the
world (Boyd, 1996; Bryceson, 2002) was about to
be started in Rufiji River delta, but joint opposition
from interested parties caused the project to be
halted in 1999/2000 (Bryceson, 2002).
Environmental problems have resulted from
the conversion of wetland habitats to aquaculture
ponds. These include nutrient, sediment and
organic waste accumulation leading to
deterioration of water quality, one of the important
factors that determine the viability of fish farming.
The water quality problem is associated with both
physical and chemical problems such as too high
or too low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations,|
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