Preliminary investigation on the Pleistocene/Holocene Sea-Level Changes along the Coastline of Tanzania, with reference to Unguja and Pemba Islands
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Along the coast of Tanzania, coral reefs, marine terraces and beach ridges are among the most important geomorphological features indicative of the Pleistocene/Holocene sea level changes. Three major terrace units can easily be identified on the mainland coast, namely, Mtoni (youngest), Tanga and Sakura (oldest). Three terrace units have also been identified on the Islands of Unguja and Pemba. On the basis of the difference in the terrace elevations between the two terrace systems it is postulated that the marine terraces on the islands probably represent minor fluctuations of sea level, rather than major phases of sea level fluctuation. A sand beach on the seaward side and several sand ridges on the landward side represent the Recent phase. The oldest Palaeoshoreline is approximately 5 m above the present sea level, and extends landward to more than 1 km. Specific localities around the two islands where Pleistocene/Holocene sea level changes has been preserved in the form of marine terraces and/or beach ridges include Chwaka, Uroa, Jambiani, Paje and Nungwi (Unguja island) and Vumawimbi and Kiuyu (Pemba island).
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