Applications of an Indian Ocean Observing System to Climate Impacts and Resource Predictions in Surrounding Countries in the Context of ENSO-Monsoon Teleconnections
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We explore the path between Indian Ocean observations and monsoon dynamics, the societal impacts of interannual climate variations and applications of resource predictions in southeastern Africa, the Mascarene Islands, India, southeast Asia and Australia. Recent progress in understanding ocean dynamics associated with SST variation is reviewed. The global El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) affects monsoon winds and ocean temperatures in a manner consistent with, but lagging, the Pacific. The ENSO influence often propagates across the tropical Indian Ocean from Africa to Indonesia, modulating the tropospheric moisture flux over the Indian Ocean and rainfall in surrounding continents. An east-west dipole in SST anomalies and monsoon rainfall is identified and related to the atmospheric Walker Cell. It appears partially in response to global ENSO conditions during build-up phase (July-Nov.). The eastern ‘node’ is confined near Sumatra, whilst the western centre of action extend.....
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