What do we know about El Nino in the Indian Ocean? A
This paper aims to guide fisheries biologists in the use of current knowledge of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon in order to address its impact on fisheries in the Indian Ocean. It is widely accepted that both the Indian and the Pacific Oceans are closely linked through the Indonesian Throughflow and the strong convective activity that occurs there. In order to tackle the ENSO phenomenon, it is therefore crucial to adopt a coupled Indian-Pacific Ocean approach. ENSO mechanisms in the Pacific are well known, but the role of the Indian Ocean in these mechanisms is not as clear. Due to the fact that air-sea interactions in the Indian Ocean are a new area of research, our knowledge is still not sufficient to have an overall view of the Indian-Pacific/ocean-atmosphere system. Nevertheless, climate monitoring is increasing in the Indian Ocean in order to enable its study. Hence parameters useful for taking the Indian-Pacific coupling into account are identified in this paper and their real-time monitoring, available on the internet or through National Meteorological Centres, is proposed for the purpose of fisheries biology studies. To make full use of the available data and to facilitate the interpretation of observations, the unique features of the Indian Ocean's climatology and oceanography and the monsoon system are first described in relation to the ENSO phenomenon. 'Research Group' , avenue du Jura 01210 Ferney-Voltaire France, Southampton Oceanographic Centre, Department of Oceanography.