Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms, HABs in Eutrophic Systems.
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Nutrient enrichment of both land and water is a result of increased human population growth and many associated activities for food and energy production, and discharge of associated sewage and waste. The end result of nutrient loading to inland and coastal waters is often an increase in algal biomass, frequently dominated by one or more species or species groups; this process is eutrophication. An important consequence of eutrophication is the increased prevalence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) that develop high biomass, cause fish kills, intoxicate seafood, result in oxygen depletion, and alter trophic interactions. Nutrient enrichment can stimulate HABs not only directly by stimulation of growth and biomass, but indirectly in subtle, but nevertheless significant, ways through alterations in food web and ecosystem dynamics. The interactions of these alterations on HAB proliferation is only beginning to be understood......