Parazoanthines A-E: Hydantoin Alkaloids from the Mediterranean Sea Anemone Parazoanthus axinellae
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Five new hydantoin alkaloids, named parazoanthines A-E (1-5), were isolated as the major constituents of the Mediterranean sea anemone Parazoanthus axinellae. Their structural elucidation was achieved through NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. The absolute configuration of the chiral compounds 1 and 4 was determined by comparison between experimental and TDDFT calculated CD spectra. The configuration of the trisubstituted double bond of 2, 3, and 5 was deduced from the 3JH6-C4 coupling constant value. This family of alkaloids represents the first example of natural 3,5- disubstituted hydantoins which do not exhibit a methyl at N-3. All compounds were tested for their natural toxicity (Microtox® assay) and parazoanthine C (3) exhibited the highest natural toxicity. 3 Relatively few chemical studies of zoanthids have been reported so far, despite evidence of their rich natural products chemistry.1 Colonial sea anemones of the genus Parazoanthus have been identif.....