Environmental Design and Analysis in Marine Environmental Sampling
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The IOC-IMO-UNEP/GIPME Groups of Experts on Effects of Pollution (GEEP) has been working for a number of years on promoting new ways of understanding how pollutants affect marine biological systems. A major initial focus of GEEP was on calibration workshops where different methods were tested against one another. The Oslo (1986), Bermuda (1988) and Bremerhaven (1992) workshop publications are widely regarded as benchmarks demonstrating that biological effects methods are reliable tools for measurement of the effects of pollutants discharged to the marine environment. IOC through GEEP, in cooperation with UNEP, has published a series of manuals based on the successful techniques and these are listed at the back of this volume. Monitoring programmes for chemical contamination and for biological effects of these contaminants are used globally. Yet often the sampling design of such programmes has received little attention. Monitoring programmes are often conducted in order to be able.....